Fiona Carroll


I have several years of experience both teaching and researching in Human Computer Interaction and to date, I have produced an extensive yet diverse list of publications.

Magazine Articles

Carroll, F. and Calderon, A. (2021). Instagram Kids: tech development must move from usability to safety. In The CONVERSATION.

Carroll, F.(2021). Fake news: bold visual warnings needed to stop people clicking – new research. In The CONVERSATION.

Carroll, F., Mostafa, M. & Thorne, S. (2020). Working from home: Twitter reveals why we’re embracing it. In The CONVERSATION.

Carroll, F. (2019). Technology for humans: Prioritising human well-being in our science . In SCIENTISTS ARE HUMANS Magazine.

Carroll, F., Webb, M. & Cropper, S. (2018). Our senses are lost online: Investigating how aesthetics might be used to ground people in Cyberspace. In IEEE Technology and Society Magazine.

Journal Papers

Montasari, R., MacDonald, S., Hosseinian-Far, A., Carroll, F. & Daneshkhah, A. (2020). Network and Hypervisor-Based Attacks in Cloud Computing Environments. Int. J. Electronic Security and Digital Forensics. In Inderscience Publishers Ltd.

Lewis, R., Anderson, T. and Carroll,F.(2020). Can School Enrolment and Performance be Improved by Maximizing Students’ Sense of Choice in Elective Subjects?Journal of Learning Analytics, vol. 7(1), pp. 75–87, doi: 10.18608/jla.2020.71.6

Edmond, E. C., Prakash, E., and Carroll, F. (2020).RoboDoc: Critical Ethical Issues to Consider for the Design and Development of a Robotic Doctor Experience. Journal of Future Robot Life, 1 Jan. 2020 : 1 – 5. DOI: 10.3233/FRL-200002

Entwistle, A., Burrows, I. & Carroll, F. & (2017). ‘Aesthetic co-producing for site-specific experiential inclusion’. In Open Cultural Studies Journal: Media and Emotions. The New Frontiers of Affect in Digital Culture (Special Issue). ISSN (Online).

Henry, M.,Carroll, F., Cunliffe, D. & Kop, R. (2017). ‘Learning a minority language through authentic conversation using an online social learning method’. In Journal of Computer Assisted Language Learning. UK: Taylor & Francis.

Carroll, F. & Kop, R. (2016). ‘Colouring the gaps in Technology Enhanced Learning: Aesthetics and the visual in learning’, in Special Issue on Visual Aspects in Technology. Enhanced Learning, International Journal of Distance Education Technologies. 14 (1) pp. 92-103.

Lewis, R. and F. Carroll (2016). ‘Creating Seating Plans: A Practical Application’. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 67(11), pp. 1353-1362. (10.1057/jors.2016.34)

Carroll, F. & Lewis, R. (2013). ‘The ‘engaged’ interaction: important considerations for the HCI design and development of a web application for solving a complex combinatorial optimization problem’. In World Journal of Computer Application and Technology 1(3), pp. 75-82. (DOI: 10.13189/wjcat.2013.010303).

Carroll, F., Jenkins, A., Woodward, C., Kop, R. & Jenkins, E. (2012). ‘Exploring How Social Media Can Enhance the Teaching of Action Research’, Action Research Journal, 10 (2), pp. 170-188. (DOI: 10.1177/1476750311424945).

Kop, R. & Carroll, F. (2011). ‘Cloud computing: Learning from a Massive Open Online Course on how to enhance creativity in learning’, In European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning. [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 3/4/2017).

Carroll, F. & Kop, R. (2011). ‘A Learning, Research and Development Framework to Design for a Holistic Learning Experience’, E-Learning and Digital Media Journal, 8(4), pp.315 -356. ISSN 2042- 7530.

Carroll, F. (2010). ‘Designing (for) experiences in photorealistic VR environments’. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 16, pp. 181-194.(

McCall, R., ONeill, S., Carroll F., Benyon, D. & Smyth, M. (2005). ‘Responsive Environments, Place and Presence’. Psychnology Journal, 3(1), pp. 34-74.

Book Chapters

Yu, S. & Carroll, F. (2021) Implications of AI in National Security: Understanding the Security issues and Ethical challenges In: Montasari, R. & Jahankhani, H. (ed.s) Artificial Intelligence in Cyber Security: Impact and Implications. Security Challenges, Technical and Ethical Issues, Forensic Investigative Challenges. Springer. DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-88040-8

Carroll, F. , Calderon, A. & Mostafa, M. (2021). ‘Ethics and the Internet of Everything: A glimpse into People’s Perceptions of IoT Privacy and Security’. In Montasari, R., Bolton-King, R., Carroll. F., Mitchell, I. & Hara, S.(eds) Privacy, Security and Forensics in The Internet of Things (IoT). Springer.

Montasari, R., Jahankhani, H. and Carroll, F., (2020). ‘Combating Human Trafficking: An Analysis of International and Domestic Legislations '. In Jahankhani, H., Kendzierskyj, S. and Akhgar, B (eds.) Information Security Technologies to Control Pandemics. Springer.

Montasari, R., Carroll, F., Jahankhani, H., Hosseinian-Far,A. and Daneshkhah, A. (2020). ‘Application of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Producing Actionable Cyber Threat Intelligence'. In Montasari, R., Jahankhani, H. Hill, R. and Parkinson, S. (eds.) Digital Forensic Investigation of Internet of Things (IoT) Devices. Springer.

Smyth, M., Benyon, D., McCall, R., O’Neill, S., and Carroll, F. (2015). ‘Patterns of Place: An Integrated Approach for the Design and Evaluation of Real and Virtual Environments’. In Biocca, F., Freeman, J., IJsselsteijn, W., Lombard, M. and Schaevitz, R. J. (eds). Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory, Measurement and Technology. New York, NY: Springer, pp.187–235.doi:10.1007/978-3-319-10190-3_9

Carroll, F.; Kop, R., and Thomas, N. (2015). From books to ebooks: A new chapter for learning. Open Education in Europe, eLearning papers, Occasional paper

Carroll, F. (2011). ‘Exploring past trends and current challenges of human computer interaction (HCI) design: What does this mean for the design of virtual environments?’ In B. H. Khan (Ed.), User Interface Design for Virtual Environments: Challenges and Advances. Hershey, PA: IGI Publishing.

Carroll, F. (2008). ‘The Spatial Development of the Visual-Narrative from Prehistoric Cave Paintings to Computer Games’. In P. Turner et al. (Eds.), Exploration of Space, Technology, and Spatiality: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. UK: Springer.

Benyon D., Smyth, M., McCall, R., ONeill, S. & Carroll, F. (2006). ‘The Place Probe: Exploring a Sense of Place in Real and Virtual Environments’. Presence Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 15(6), pp.668-687.

Turner, P. Turner, S. Carroll, F. (2005). ‘The Tourist Gaze: Contextualising Virtual Environments’. In P Turner et al. (eds.), Spaces, Spatiality and Technology. UK: Springer.

Carroll, F., Smyth, M. & Dryden, L. (2004). ‘Visual-Narrative and Virtual Reality’. In Book of Selected Readings: The International Association of Visual Literacy. IVLA, Johannesburg, South Africa. pp. 63 -73

Conference Papers, Conference Proceedings & Workshop Papers

Carroll, F. & Faruque, R. (2021). Building towards a more inclusive computing learning experience: Exploring aesthetic techniques to enhance Welsh school children’s engagement with programming. Association for Learning Technology (ALT)Conference 2021.

Carroll, F. (2021). Usable Security and Aesthetics: Designing for engaging online security warnings and cautions to optimise user security whilst affording ease of use. 2021 European Symposium on Usable Security (EuroUSEC 2021).

Carroll, F. and Bonkel, B. (2021). Designing for affective warnings to support people in trusting information online. 33rd British Human-Computer Interaction conference, 19-20 July 2021.

Adejobi,J.A., Carroll, F. , Montasari, R. and Nawaf, L. (2021). Phishing, Trust and Human Wellbeing. 14th International Conference on ICT, Society and Human Beings, 20 – 22 July 2021.

Chellaraj, S. & Carroll, F. (2021). Collaborative Community-based Self Expanding E-Learning Model (CCSE). Advances in Management and Innovation 2021 conference.

Silcox, S. & Carroll, F. (2021). Developing a more innovative ‘Forex' trading application to shape new and improved trading experiences. Advances in Management and Innovation 2021 conference.

Pinney, J. Carroll, F. & Esyin, C. (2021) Valuable insights into the aesthetic visualisation of uncertainty in data as a means to navigating business risks and making better strategic decisions. Advances in Management and Innovation 2021 conference.

Sousa, M., Carroll, F. & Kop, R. (2021). Investigating the Aesthetic Effect of Visual in Online Higher Educational Video Lecture Experience. ICDEL 2021: 23th International Conference on Digital Education and Learning.

Nawaf, L., Hewage, C. & Carroll, F. (2021). Minimization of Cyber Security Threats Caused by COVID-19 Pandemic. ICICT 2021 (Sixth International Congress on Information and Communication Technology).

Pinney, J., Carroll, F. & Newbury, P. (2020). Robots and Uncertainty: An investigation into the impact of the aesthetic visualisation on people’s trust of robots. RITA 2020 conference.

Dashti, S., Prakash, E., Hussain, F. & Carroll, F. (2020). Digital Pottery: Novel Information Systems and Workflow Process for Virtual and Physical Artistic Visualizations of Sound on Ceramics. Advances in Management and Innovation 2020 conference.

Dashti, S., Hussain, F., Carroll, F., & Prakash, E. (2020). Scaffolds for virtual pottery: Design, 3D printing and kiln firing. In the 8th International Conference on RiTA Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications Programme RiTA2020, Three-Minutes Thesis (3MT) Competition.

Dashti, S., Prakash, E., Hussain, F. & Carroll, F. (2020). Virtual Pottery: Deformable Sound Shape Modelling and Fabrication. CyberWorlds 2020 conference. ISBN: 978-1-7281-6497-7

Carroll, F., Webb, M. & Cropper, S. (2020). Investigating aesthetics to afford more ‘felt' knowledge and ‘meaningful' navigation interface designs. In: IV2020, 24 International Conference Information Visualisation (Type/Track of contribution: HCI - Human-Computer Interaction for Information Visualization), Virtual conference, 7-11 September 2020.

Carroll, F., Mostafa, M. & Thorne, S. (2020). COVID-19: #Working From Home. Quite Enjoyed It. Surprised Myself. In: MCCSIS, Multi-conference of computer science and Information systems, 13th International Conference on ICT, Society and Human Beings,Virtual conference, 21– 23 July, 2020.

Carroll, F., Legg, P. & Bonkel, B. (2020). The Visual Design of Network Data to Enhance Cyber Security Awareness of the Everyday Internet Use. In: IEEE Int. Conf. on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA), Virtual conference, 15-17 June 2020.

Carroll, F. & Legg, P. & Chakof, A. (2019). What makes for effective visualisation in cyber situational awareness for non-expert users? In: IEEE Int. Conf. on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA), Oxford, England, 3-4 June 2019. Available from:


Carroll, F., Entwistle, A., Burrows, I., Ware, M. & Thomas, N. (2017). Smart CITY Patterns: Creating environmental stylesheets to template ‘inclusivity’ on Cardiff Bay Barrage. In IEEE conference 2017 International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS 2017).

Carroll, F., Kop, R., Thomas, N. and Dunning, R. (2015).Transformation: An initial study into the alignment of mobile interaction and language learning. MCCSIS, Multi-conference of computer science and Information systems, 9th International Conference on e-Learning, 21 – 24 July 2015, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.

Carroll, F., Thomas, N. & Ware, M. (2013). The Development An Interactive Ibook Application To Harness The Next Generation Of ‘Computer Architecture’ Educational Experiences. In Proceedings: WORLDCOMP’13- The 9th International Conference on Frontiers in Education: Computer Science and Computer Engineering, July 22-25, 2013, USA.

Thomas, N., Carroll, F., Kop, R. & Stocking, S. (2012). iBook learning experience: the challenge of teaching computer architecture to first year university students. In Proceedings: WORLDCOMP’12- The 2012 World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, and Applied Computing, July 16-19, 2012, USA.

Carroll, F. (2009). Aesthetic-Interaction: Exploring the Importance of the Visual Aesthetic in the Creation of Engaging Photorealistic VR Environments. In Proceedings: Theory and Practice of Computer Graphics, Cardiff University, 19th June. Geneve: Eurographics Association. pp.181-188.

Carroll, F. & Kop, R. & Woodward, C. (2008). Sowing the Seeds of Learner Autonomy: Transforming the VLE into a Third Place through the use of Web 2.0 Tools. In ECEL-European Conference on eLearning, University of Cyprus, Cyprus, 6-7 November 2008. pp. 152-160.

Carroll, F. & Robinson, J. & Woodward, C. (2008). A New Presence-Learning Tool to Enhance the Learning Experience. In HCI workshop for Technology Enhanced Learning, John Moore University, Liverpool, 1-5 September 2008.

Kop, R., Woodward, C. & Carroll, F. (2008). Get your Hands Dirty: Personlisation for whom?. Digital Learning: Repurposing Education, Plymouth E-learning Conference, Plymouth University, 4 April 2008.

Woodward, C., Kop, R., & Carroll, F. (2007).Which side of the wall are you on? At the 14th International Conference of the Association for Learning Technology, ALT-C 2007: Beyond Control, Learning Technology for the Social Network Generation, Nottingham, UK, 4-6 September 2007.

Carroll, F., Smyth, M. & Dryden, L. (2005). Investigating the Creation of Visually Engaging Experiences in Virtual Reality Environments. In Proceedings: Edesigns in Art and Design Education. University of the Arts, London.

Carroll, F. (2005). Developing a Visual-Narrative Model to Enhance Engagement in a Virtual Reality Environment. In Proceedings: The 19th British HCI Group Annual Conference. Napier University, Edinburgh.

Carroll, F. (2005). Engagement and Creativity in Virtual Environments. In HCI workshop, Napier University, Edinburgh, 5-9th September.

McCall, R. ONeill, S. and Carroll, F. (2004). Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments. In Conference on Human-Factorsin Computing: CHI 2004. Vienna, Austria: Association of Computing Machinery.

McCall, R. ONeill, S. Carroll, F. and Benyon, D. (2004). The Presence Probe. In, Workshop on Designing and Evaluating Virtual Reality Systems. University of Notthingham, UK.

McCall, R., ONeill, S., Smyth, M., Benyon, D. & Carroll, F. (2004). A Method for Designing Virtual Places. In Presence 2004. Valencia, Spain.

Carroll, F. (2004). Image, Narrative and VR Space. In Proceedings: Spaces, Spatiality and Technology Workshop, Edinburgh, Scotland.

ONeill, S. McCall, R. and Carroll, F. (2004). Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments (Video). Conference on Human Factors in Computing 2004: CHI2004, Vienna, Austria, CD.

Turner, P. McGregor, I. Turner, S. and Carroll, F. (2003). Evaluating Soundscapes as a Means of Creating a Sense of Place. In Brazil, E & Shinn-Cunningham, B (Eds), ICAD, pp. 148-151. Boston University Publications Department.

Turner, S. Turner, P. Carroll, F. ONeill, S., Benyon, D. McCall, R. and Smyth, M. (2003). Re-creating the Botanics: towards a sense of place in virtual environments. 3rd UK Conference of the Environmental Psychology Network.